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Turn down the screen brightness
This is obvious but worth mentioning. The display on Android phones is the biggest drain of battery, so it makes sense to turn it down as low as possible. This can add hours of life to the battery.
Android phones have an auto-brightness setting that automatically adjusts the screen brightness based on ambient room light. This normally works fine but when trying to sqeeze the most up-time on a charge it is worth turning off. Then you set the brightness manually to the lowest setting that is comfortable to still see the screen. It's worth repeating that this can add hours of battery life on a given day.
Reduce screen timeout
Android phones will automatically dim and then turn off the display after a set interval. It's worth setting this interval as short as possible which will have a good impact on battery life.
Some Samsung Galaxy phones, like my Note 2, have another setting called Smart stay. This prevents the screen from dimming and timing out if it detects the user is looking at the screen. This is a great utility and makes it possible to set the timeout interval shown above to as short as possible. The screen won't keep turning off while you're using the phone, but will do so if you're not using it after a few seconds.
Don't forget power saving mode
Most phones have a special mode that can be toggled on to stretch the longest time possible out of the battery. Power saving mode does this through a number of techniques such as turning off different radios (wi-fi, Bluethooth) among other things.
Power saving mode has a significant impact on system performance so you don't want to have it enabled all the time. Instead, turn it on when your battery level is dropping low and you have a while to get through the day. Some phones have a setting that lets you program a battery level, say 30 percent, to enable power saving mode automatically.