Sometimes, this lesson smacks us upside the head, as it did the U.S. auto industry in the late 1970s. The traditional formula was to produce cars "as fast as possible, and fixing problems at the end of the production line. The Japanese came into the U.S. market and were fixing the problem by going back into the process and fixing the process." Don't just fix the errors, but fix the process, Ariola says. QA and testing will be critical as we rely more on code reuse and loosely coupled architectures that depend on code others have written and are responsible for.