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(Credit: National University of Defense Technology)
China's National University of Defense Technology built the Tianhe-2, and also built the 10th-fastest supercomputer today, the Tianhe-1. That machine topped the world's fastest list in November, 2010.
Linpack performance (Rmax): 2,566.0 TFlop/s
Theoretical peak (Rpeak): 4,701.0 TFlop/s
Operating system: Linux