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Of course, not every datacentre can be built in chilly climes. "The latency is the problem; the delay. A lot of companies have to have datacentres located near their work, and in the country", Schmidt says. Some places, for example, mandate that data cannot leave the country for data protection reasons.
But even if a business is located in a warmer climate, its datacentre can still tap into its surroundings, partly because the industry is moving away from the notion that datacentres have to stay nicely chilled. IBM's chips, Schmidt says, are designed work in temperatures of up to 85°C (185°F). Keep the equipment below that, and it should work just fine.
It follows, therefore, that you can use outside water at ambient temperature to chill your datacentre - creating the seemingly paradoxical notion of 'hot-water cooling'. "Like the air cooling... why can't we use the outside water to cool?" Schmidt says. The advantage, of course, is that if you can use water at ambient temperature, you're not using energy to chill it first.
Some of the company's x-series mainframes have inbuilt water-cooling with a water temperature of 45°C and IBM is looking to push the water temperature for cooling even higher, to around 65°C: "What we've been talking about is using the water to cool the chips, then it goes through the system and comes out hotter, maybe 70°C, and we use that hotter water for the heating of buildings and central distribution in towns," Schmidt says. "There's a lot of interest in this because we've never really been able to solve the waste heat problem for datacentres. So now we use hotter water, we can use that waste heat for good purposes."
The principle is illustrated above: the dial on the left shows the temperature of the water coming in from the Hudson River, just outside the IBM plant. The right-hand dial shows the water temperature on the way out, after it has collected heat from the datacentre.