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Curiosity carries 17 cameras, four of which are relatively high-resolution at two megapixels — remember, the specifications were set by 2004.
The very earliest images from Curiosity came via its black-and-white hazard avoidance cameras (hazcams). The more recent colour pictures come from cameras such as the one pictured above, which is one of the rover's two mastcams.
The two mastcams are the same, except one (pictured) has a telephoto lens, and the other a wide-angle lens.
Image credit: NASA