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This diagram shows one of the most important instruments on board — or rather inside — Curiosity.
Once the rover's drills and scoops have got hold of some rock to analyse, they pass it on to CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy), a powder X-ray diffraction instrument.
CheMin analyses the samples using an X-ray beam, in order to figure out what minerals they contain. By doing that, the idea is to work out whether water was involved in the rocks' formation, or indeed whether the rocks may contain a potential energy source.
Image credit: NASA