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Preventing contamination on the fab floor is paramount, hence the workers' suits. Handling of the wafers is done by cubed robots such as the one above, which move around on tracks attached to the ceiling. They ferry stacks of wafers in batches of 25 from stockers to machines where the circuitry is printed, before transferring them to other parts of the fab for quality testing. With an older chipset such as the Power7, now two years old, only about three wafers of each set of 25 are tested for imperfections, Arthur says. With a newer chip design, a higher number would be examined.
There are around 350 tool operators on the fab floor, though their job is to test and check tools rather than operate them. They are joined by nearly 500 workers employed by IBM's partners, such as Samsung, Global Foundries and ST Micro, who have access to the fab and can work on the tools supplied by their companies.
Alongside IBM Research in nearby Yorktown, much of the fab's work here is focused on developing high-performance chips.
Arthur says the fab is unusual in having production and development share the same facility. "That's rare in the industry. The plus of it is, if you work together, you can save capital equipment, because you're sharing it. The negative is, if you're sharing it, you fight about who gets it," he says, adding that balancing the needs of the two is one of the biggest challenges of his job.