Laptops give you HOLS (Hunched Over Laptop Syndrome) and tablets are a pain in the neck

Laptops give you HOLS (Hunched Over Laptop Syndrome) and tablets are a pain in the neck

Summary: Portable computers, tablets, and smartphones are damaging the health of most of the people who use them for extended periods of work, and we could be in for an epidemic of 'iPad neck'. However, there are ways to reduce the risk.


Most British office workers — 79 percent — say that working with mobile devices such as laptops and tablets is making them sick, according to a research conducted on behalf of Fellowes. The problem even has a catchy name: HOLS, for Hunched Over Laptop Syndrome.

Person at desk showing good posture
Posture is important when using computers.
(Image: Fellowes)

Decades of ergonomics research led to workstation designs and working practices intended to reduce the ill effects of poor posture in the workplace. In the UK, this resulted in the HSE's Display Screen Regulations, which came into force in 1992. With the move to laptops, tablets, and mobile working, most of these ideas seem to have been forgotten. In fact, the situation may well be getting worse, because more people are using laptops inside as well as outside the office.

Dr Sarah Jarvis, a general practitioner and health broadcaster (for The One Show) commented: "Permanent desk spaces are the thing of the past, with many of us working in a nomadic style. In many cases, this so-called HOL syndrome is brought on by lack of ergonomic equipment. Job illnesses and ailments associated with poor posture are rising significantly, and I am seeing more in my practice year on year."

Fellowes, a company that sells ergonomic office equipment, claims that "the lack of specialist ergonomic equipment when on the move is the prime cause for the rise in work-related back and joint injuries brought on by devices that promise to make our lives easier". It claims that equipment-related problems (including unergonomic desks and chairs) cost UK companies £7.2 billion a year.

The self-interest is obvious, but the company does have a point. Its research found that 25 percent of workers say their posture is worse when they work nomadically with handhelds, tablets, and laptops, and about 10 percent say this type of working has caused long-term problems. Back pains and upper limb disorders often result in people taking time off work, and a "staggering" 5 percent have been forced to give up their job altogether, said Fellowes.

Problems typically arise after many years of bad posture, but the report says younger workers aged 18 to 24 were the "most seriously affected". Two thirds claim to have a problem caused by mobile working.

The research was undertaken for Fellowes by Dynamic Markets among 1,000 UK adults aged 18 or over.

Minimizing the pain

The laptop problem has been recognised for many years, and I'm one of the people who has suffered from it (see: When laptops are a pain in the neck). The standard advice is to follow the practices adopted for desktops and workstations. For example, the top of the screen should be roughly level with your eyes. This means either using a separate monitor, or putting the laptop on a riser and using a separate keyboard and mouse. You can then sit in a more upright position, which is good for the spine.

Tablets may be even more dangerous, and many people are already suffering from "iPad neck". There has not been much research into the ergonomic use of tablets for work, but Dr Jack Dennerlein and colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health have done a study with 15 subjects, and confirmed that looking down at a tablet causes problems.

Dr Sarah Jarvis suggests following the laptop rules when using an iPad. "Treat it as a mobile computer," she said. "I've got a stand for my iPad." You can look down, but "avoid the 'vulture posture', which is particularly bad for your back".

To minimise the risk of injury when using tablets and laptops, try to keep your spine fairly straight, change your posture frequently, and take regular screen breaks. (Get up and move around.) With desktop PCs, you should take a break every hour. When working on a laptop, take a 5-minute break every 30 minutes or less. When working on a smartphone, take a break after 10 to 15 minutes.

If you don't think this stuff is important, you should know that your spinal inclination is the best predictor of whether you will end up in a nursing home, or in need of daily home care. See Posture Provides Clue for Future Disability in The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) journal.

Topics: Mobility, Hardware, Health

Jack Schofield

About Jack Schofield

Jack Schofield spent the 1970s editing photography magazines before becoming editor of an early UK computer magazine, Practical Computing. In 1983, he started writing a weekly computer column for the Guardian, and joined the staff to launch the newspaper's weekly computer supplement in 1985. This section launched the Guardian’s first website and, in 2001, its first real blog. When the printed section was dropped after 25 years and a couple of reincarnations, he felt it was a time for a change....

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  • One of the reasons I got rid of my ipad

    Surface users are immune to "ipad neck".

    Hey, if apple can get away with saying that osx is immune to Windows malware, nothing wrong with saying Surface users are immune to "ipad neck".
    • He's technically telling the truth people!

      Open your eyes!
  • I agree

    The larger tablets give me tension headaches from the Angle of my neck so I have always favored the smaller tablets but, they tend not to have as nice a screen as the larger tablets (well, except for the Nook HD).
  • Do it yourself ergonomics

    My employer has a "mobile workforce" where everybody shares an open workspace. When you come to the office you just grab an open desk, each of which has a monitor, keyboard, mouse and docking station. I see lots of monitors set up on a ream or two of printer paper.
  • I Don't Get "Ipad Neck"...

    ...because I don't use an Ipad.

    A 7" tablet like the Asus Nexus 7 is more natural to use, because it's small enough to hold like a book. And we never hear of "book neck", do we?
  • Take Breaks!

    Everything in moderation! Take Breaks at times and do some mini-exercises. "AcheBreak" mobile app is a break and exercise reminder. Can be customized and used to remind you to take breaks. Search "AcheBreak".

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