11 of 32Image
IBM charged ahead in the computing industry in the 1950s with the IBM 701 which operated from vacuum tubes instead of switches used in its earlier computers. This led to the use of computers in business applications. Transistors replaced the vacuum tubes in 1959 with the IBM 7090 mainframe being of one the first.
Here is Thomas Watson at the desk of an IBM 701.
IBM made a splash in 1957 with the introduction of FORTRAN, a computer language based on algebra, grammar and syntax rules.
Here's a PDF of original instructions for FORTRAN.
In 1956, Thomas Watson, Jr. took over as CEO of IBM from his father who had led the company for 42 years. He kept the key slogan - THINK.