23 of 32Image
In 1986 IBM, scientists won the Nobel Peace Prize for the scanning tunneling microscope - which would eventually manipulate atoms to spell I-B-M.
The huge changes in the computing world caught IBM by surprise in the 1990s with the PC and client/server revolutions. Business purchasing decision making changed radically and IBM was slow to adapt resulting in billions of dollars in losses.
Enter Lou Gerstner in 1993 as IBM's new chairman and CEO. The first outside leader of the company, Gerstner cut costs by shrinking the company's workforce while developing new product lines. He anticipated the growth of network computing and pushed IBM toward that goal.
In 1996, IBM made news by challenging chess champion Garry Kasparov to a match with its new 32-node IBM RS/6000 SP. Kasparov managed to beat the computer by a score of 4 to 2. But Big Blue did make news by winning one game.
In the 1997 rematch, Big Blue won by a score of 3 1/2 to 2 1/2. Photo is from the rematch.