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In the 1930s while the U.S. suffered through the Great Depression, IBM prospered. One of its biggest achievements was helping organize the Social Security Administration which was formed in 1935. It used its army of key punch machines to keep track of tax payments coming from 27 million workers. It showed that a company can help business and government manage itself with the assistance of technology.
Watson pushed IBM's strong allegiance to education and research with the creation in 1932 of a major division for engineering, research and development. He also created the IBM Schoolhouse above in 1933 for education and training of staff. (The motto is on the steps.)
During World War II, IBM and Harvard University developed the the first automatic digital calculator in the U.S. called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator or Mark 1. It was 58-feet long and 8-feet high. It could add, subtract, multipy and divide numbers up to 23 digits long.