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In January 2005, Microsoft released the first version of the Malicious Software Removal Tool. It has updated this tool and delivered it as part of the Patch Tuesday update delivery every month since then. The goal of the MSRT is to remove “specific, prevalent malicious software families” from supported Windows versions.
It’s been extremely effective at its primary job, cleaning up millions of PCs in the past seven years. An unanticipated benefit of releasing the monthly tool is that it provides Microsoft with copious amounts of data about the prevalence of malware “in the wild.”
Full details about the MSRT, including a list of which families of malware were included in each monthly update, is available in a lengthy and well-maintained Knowledge Base article.