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The Flower Dome, spanning 1.2 hectares and 45 metres in height, replicates the cool-dry climate of the Mediterranean and semi-arid subtropical regions such as South Africa, Madagascar, Western Australia and the Mediterranean Basin.
The Dome is fitted with 3,332 glass panels of varying shapes and sizes. Spectrally-selective glass and light sensor-operated shadings help to minimize solar heat gain while allowing maximum light for plants.
Spectrally selective glass coatings filter out 40 percent to 70 percent of the heat normally transmitted through insulated window glass or glazing, so lesser heat will pass through.
To ensure cool air settles at the lower occupied zone, and warm air is allowed to rise and released at high levels, the process of thermal stratification is applied. Ground-cooling, which is achieved by chilled water pipes cast within the ground slabs are also added to enhance the process.
The Cloud Forest Conservatory, stretching 0.8 hectares, greets visitors with a 35-metre mountain and a 30-metre waterfall. The area replicates the Tropical Montane climate such as Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia, and the higher regions of South America.
There are nine zones of biodiversity and ecology from different parts of the world within the conservatory itself. Some include the "Lost World" which features plants found at 2,000 meters above sea levels, and "Crystal Mountain" which resembles caves within a mountain.