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UDOO, pronounced You Do, was one of the first Raspberry Pi rivals.
This SBC is built around a Freescale i.MX 6 ARM Cortex-A9 CPU Dual/Quad core running at 1GHz. For an SBC that's a lot of processor and to take care of its resulting heat it includes large heat sinks. That makes it, by SBC standards, much bulker than most such computers.
On the other hand, the $134.99 UDOO also comes with three separate graphics accelerators for 2D, OpenGL ES2.0 3D and OpenVG. To get those graphics to the world the UDOO uses HDMI. For programming room, it has 1 GB of RAM, Gigabit Ethernet, USB 2.0 ports, and it uses a Micro SD card for booting and storage.
Finally, for operating systems, the UDOO supports Linaro Ubuntu, Android 4.3, Debian, and Yocto.
A more affordable SBC, the $45 BeagleBone Black is powered by a Texas Instruments AM335x 1GHz ARM Cortex-A8 processor. It also comes with a 3D graphics accelerator, and a NEON floating-point accelerator. For memory and storage it has 512MBs of RAM and 2GBs of on-board flash storage. As for secondary storage and booting it uses the usual micro-SD card. For networking it uses 10/100MB Ethernet and graphics output is done by both S-Video and HDMI.
The BeagleBone family runs Debian, Ubuntu, Gentoo, and Android. In addition, the BeagleBone has its own Linux distribution: Angstrom. It also comes with a great deal of support and several books on how to get the most from this SBC. This makes it, to my mind, one of the best SBCs for beginners.
The Banana Pi, despite the name, is not a next-generation Raspberry Pi. Instead it's more of a Raspberry Pi clone. Like many similar SBCs from Chinese manufacturers, it's essentially a more powerful Raspberry Pi with, of course, a higher price tag.
This sized SBC costs just over $74 after shipping. It comes with a dual-core, Cortex-A7-based Allwinner A20 system-on-chip running at 1GHz. The Banana Pi also has 1GB of RAM and built-in Gigabit Ethernet. It also also includes a SATA port, a micro-USB port, and a Display Serial Interface (DSI) for graphics.
For operating systems, the Banana Pi supports Android 4.4, Ubuntu, Debian, Raspberry Pi Image, and the Cubieboard Image. If you like the Raspberry Pi a lot, but crave more power, then the Banana Pi is worth a look.