The man who made IT possible: Unknown silicon grower Czochralski gets year of celebrations

The man who made IT possible: Unknown silicon grower Czochralski gets year of celebrations

Summary: Jan Czochralski, who invented the process of growing single crystals, is the subject of events to mark his birthday in his Polish homeland.

TOPICS: Processors, Hardware, EU
singe crystals
Single crystals of silicon and lithium niobate grown with the Czochralski Process. Image: ITME, JCH

His name may be almost impossible to pronounce for non-Polish speakers, but without Jan Czochralski, IT as we know it would not exist.

Wednesday is the birthday of the chemist and metallurgist who, among other things, invented a process for growing single crystals.

Even in his native Poland, Czochralski (who lived from 1885 to 1953) is virtually unknown among the general public. He is, however, the most cited Polish scientist in the world. To mark the 60th anniversary of his death, 2013 has been declared Czochralski Year by the Polish government.

His Czochralski Process, which he discovered by accident in 1916, has proven vital for IT as we know it today.

"His discovery allows for laboratory growth of large, single clear crystals of exceptional quality," said Piotr Kossobudzki, vice-chairman of the Polish Association of Science Journalists, and one of the main organisers of the Czochralski Year.

"This allows for the growth of silicon crystals measuring 2m by 0.5m within 30 to 48 hours. The silicon is chipped off in very thin sheets, which are used in transistors and for the production of microprocessors."

The natural growth process would take much too long and is limited to very small sizes of crystals, making it unviable for industrial production of electronics. The resulting crystals would also be too contaminated for real-world use, Kossobudzki said, while the level of miniaturisation that can be achieved today would be impossible to attain naturally.

"Basically, computers would still be the size of an entire room, instead of the palm of your hand," he said.

That's only one example of the importance of the Czochralski Process, since crystals of various materials are used for a range of other purposes. "A laser is also focused using a crystal. Those crystals are also grown and harvested using the Czochralski method," Kossobudzki said.

And it's not only crystals that Czochralski worked on: "He made discoveries in metallurgy used for the development of wheels that allowed trains to go much faster than before."

That Czochralski is not very well known compared to the greatest name in Polish science, Marie Curie-Sklodowska, is not only due to the highly specialised areas he worked in.

He spent most of his scientific career in Germany, between 1900 and 1928, and made his most important discoveries there. During the war, when he worked at the Technical University of Warsaw, he developed an easily manufacturable grenade for the Polish resistance.

After the war, he was marginalised by the communist government in Poland for working in Germany, and spent his last years running a small cosmetics firm.

Further reading

Topics: Processors, Hardware, EU

Michiel van Blommestein

About Michiel van Blommestein

Michiel van Blommestein is a Dutch journalist who has been living in Poland since 2010. He worked as a technology journalist in the Netherlands before moving to Poland to work as a regular correspondent for various news outlets. He still loves the bits and bytes though.

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  • The Polish Philo Farnsworth!

    Like Philo Farnsworth of Utah, USA, the obscure worker who developed much is less remembered than the "rock star" inventors who picked up the work and used it more visibly. I will try to learn how to pronounce his name and tell others!

    Philo, who invented the first complete system for all-electronic television, had his patents stolen by RCA (which owned NBC Radio). And Jan's work, which was not patented, was used by others to build their inventions. It had to have been used also in the early GERMANIUM transistors which preceded silicon, since they also required single crystals.
  • What is the image?

    It looks suspiciously like some skyscrapers.
    • Ingots

      Close-ups of reflections of nearby buildings on two single-crystal ingots made with the Czochralski process; google it if you want to see them better.
  • Warsaw...

    In the tiny Marie Curie museum in Warsaw in the old town, there's a small section devoted to his work. He deserves wider recognition, for sure.
    Tom Foremski