Analysis of the top 1,000 global innovation spenders finds accelerated investment in research and development - $384 bln in 2004. While companies headquartered in North America, Europe, and Japan account for 96.8% of R&D spending, and are likely to remain dominant players for the foreseeable future, companies with headquarters in China, India, and the rest of the world are turning up the volume on R&D investment. The annual growth rate for R&D spending from 1999 to 2004 in China and India was 21.1%, significantly higher than in North America (6.6%), Europe (6.2%), and Japan (4.8%). However, the developed economies show a higher ratio of R&D spending to sales. Here China and India lag, spending only 1% of revenue on R&D, compared with 4.9% for firms in North America, 4% in Europe, and 3.8% in Japan. The differences among the three main spend regions are partially explained by differences in industry mix.