ESPN and ABC conducted an ethnographic study from February to August 2004, in which 157 homes were given DVRs. Of those households, 67 (42.7%) returned the DVRs, finding either a bad experience with installation or that the cost was too high. In terms of the homes that stuck with the DVRs, roughly half said they didn't watch more TV, but that they did watch more efficiently - they were able to watch desired shows according to their busy schedules. About 30% said they never used the device to avoid commercials. Currently, 40 mln American households have digital TV through satellite and cable subscriptions.