Using lasers to correct lenses in your eye is now commonplace. Restoring your sight to near-perfect vision in a few minutes is very, very cool.
A portion of the skull is removed to give the surgeon access to the brain tissue. Electrodes can be used to stimulate areas of the brain during the operation. Sometimes the patient remains conscious throughout the procedure.
An incision is made through the abdomen and uterus to deliver a baby. This operation is usually performed when there is a medical risk to the child or mother.
The contraceptive pill contains oestrogen and progesterone hormones. As the pill decoupled sex and procreation, women could control their fertility and make long term education and career plans.
Vaccines are made from weakened or dead forms of the microbe and are used to protect against exposure to the live microbe by recognising and destroying the micro-organism. Vaccines have eradicated smallpox across the world.
Prosthetics have come a long way since the wooden leg. Some prosthetic devices can be controlled by sensors attached to the brain.
This treatment uses ionising radiation to kill malignant cancer cells if they are localised in one part of the body. Radiotherapy is also used to prevent tumour recurrence after surgery.
Heart surgery works better when the heart is stopped and drained of blood. The heart is temporarily stopped and the blood flow is routed through a heart bypass whilst the corrective procedure is carried out.
Antibiotics either kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. They have revolutionised medicine in the 20th century.
Kidneys, corneas, hearts, liver, lungs, hand, and even whole face transplants have been carried out by surgeons. Although recipients will need to take anti-rejection drugs, their quality of life, and life expectancy will increase after the operation.
It is now possible to grow human soft tissue in petri dishes. Scientists have already grown an ear on a human arm, and on the back of a mouse. Other soft tissue parts, such as tracheas, have already been transplanted into humans to prolong life.
Using targeted chemicals and poisons, doctors have been able to target cancers successfully and help to prolong life in many patients.