We use complex forms of communication to convey information to each other. There are between 5,000 and 7,000 spoken languages world-wide.
Writing is a form of technology which records signs and symbols in a way to communicate with others. It has been around for over 8,000 years and has developed significantly over history - even now with emojis as a form of language.
A standard set of letters used in written language. Scripts, hieroglyphs, abjads, and abugidas are used for different languages.
The infrastructure that conveys sewage from one place to another through drains, manholes and pumping stations. A logistical challenge since the dawn of civilisation, wells and latrines have been found dating back 8,500 years.
Cultivation of animals and plants for food and medicine marked the rise of human civilisation. Grain has been cultivated and eaten for over 105,000 years whilst pigs were domesticated about 15,000 years ago.
Choosing political representatives for an assembly was conceived in classical Greece. Although the American Founding Fathers rejected democracy in favour of a 'natural aristocracy' for Congress, now every American can vote for the person they choose in elections.
When rainfall is insufficient to water crops for agriculture, irrigation is needed. Irrigation canals have been used for about 7,000 years.
Adding water to wood ash gives lye which has been used to clean greasy plates on many camping trips. Soaps have been used for 5,000 years and have made our lives more comfortable and a lot less smelly.
8,500 years ago the Nabatea traders constructed underground cisterns and floors from concrete. Now this composite material is the most widely used man-made material by tonnage in the world.
We take stairs for granted as a way to climb a vertical distance by dividing it into smaller sections known as steps. Spiral staircases and alternating tread stairs make descending very steep inclines easy. It is hard to imagine a world without stairs.
Digging tunnels and passageways through mountains, under rivers, or the sea to transport cars, trains, canal barges, people, or fluids means that our lives are significantly easier than before.
Plumbing systems convey fluids from one place to another through pipes and valves. Ancient civilisations like the Greeks and Chinese developed pluming meaning that you no longer need to go to the well with a bucket, or pump water up from the ground for your morning coffee.