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Sleep the screen
Since we've already ascertained that the screen is one of the biggest drains on a device, it makes sense to not have it on when you're not using the device. Set it to go to sleep after a short interval.
To do this tap Settings > Display > Sleep to change the interval. I keep it around 15 to 30 seconds.
Ultra power saving mode
Some devices such as the Samsung Galaxy S5 feature an ultra power saving mode that reduces functionality offered so you get more life out of whatever battery you have left.
Useful if you're in a power jam, but they reduce functionality dramatically.
Charge while you drive
There's an old military saying that says you should eat when you can because you never know how long it will be until you see your next meal.
Wise words, and they apply just as much to charging as they do to eating, which is why I charge up my devices when I'm on the move.
If you only have one device then a single output device like this Belkin Universal Car Charger will work ($24.99), but if you have multiple devices then you might want a dual or even triple output charger.