In 2001, during the early years of consumer DSL, the markets were very much dominated by incumbent telcos, overall constituting around 96% of all DSL connections. Some of the earliest competitors to appear were in the Nordic territories and Germany, where broadband was implemented and adopted much earlier, as well as in multi-incumbent territories such as Finland and the UK, ScreenDigest says.
However, increasing competition in the DSL network market has had a profound impact. By 2004, the main incumbents' share overall had dropped to a little under 85% of a total European market of 32 mln DSL households. It has become profoundly clear that Europe's telecommunications regulators now regard LLU as the best way to encourage competition in the various European DSL markets.