Replicating Steve: Can Apple recreate Jobs' intangibles?

Replicating Steve: Can Apple recreate Jobs' intangibles?

Summary: For the last three years Apple University has trained employees to think like Steve Jobs. His passing will put that effort to the test in the years ahead.

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TOPICS: Apple, CXO, IT Employment
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Apple has had an effort underway to replicate Steve Jobs' approach and way of thinking about products as a way to continue the company's culture. Now that effort to carry forward Jobs' corporate DNA will be put to the test.

For the last three years, a group inside Apple has focused on replicating Jobs' approach and vision. The effort, which has taken on increased importance in the last year, is run by the former dean of the Yale School of Management, Joel Podolny. Podolny joined Apple almost three years ago and started Apple University, an internal training program modeled after a similar effort at Pixar.

Podolny's background appears to be uniquely suited for Apple's task at hand. According to The Harvard Crimson, Podolny taught in the organizational behavior at Harvard and then left to take the reins of Yale’s business school.

Related: Steve Jobs: Our digital version of Walt Disney

Meanwhile, the LA Times reports that Jobs himself had been planning this effort. The effort, dubbed Apple University, aims to teach employees how to think like Jobs. In other words, the man who thought different was behind an effort to teach a company to think that way.

The LA Times wrote:

"Steve was looking to his legacy. The idea was to take what is unique about Apple and create a forum that can impart that DNA to future generations of Apple employees," said a former Apple executive who spoke on the condition of anonymity to preserve his relationship with the company. "No other company has a university charged with probing so deeply into the roots of what makes the company so successful."

Questions about this Apple Jobs replication effort abound:

  • What are the systems in place needed to capture the processes behind creating Apple products?
  • How do you pass on this knowledge?
  • And if Jobs was part artist and engineer can you truly teach the intangibles?

Other companies have tried similar efforts with varying degrees of success. For instance, Wal-Mart is carried forward by Sam Walton's values of low pricing. Wal-Mart lists various Walton values as its guiding principles. IBM refers to Thomas J. Watson as it celebrates its 100th anniversary. Ford carries some of Henry Ford with it and there's a heavy dose of Walt Disney every time you visit Disney World. Many companies have varying degrees of founder DNA.

Management experts noted that what Apple is trying to do is admirable, but extremely difficult. Saikat Chaudhuri, a management professor at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business, said Apple's success will depend on whether it captured the process Jobs used and codified it. "Jobs had the ability to read technology, the market and then integrate offerings for people. He then was able to charismatically convey to people that they needed these devices," said Chaudhuri.

"How will a system do that?" he asked.

Since Apple is quite secretive it's unclear what systems, processes and management training techniques the company is using.

Chaudhuri noted that the challenge for Apple is moving the Jobs way to a team of people while retaining the spark of ideas needed to see the future. The Wall Street Journal pointed out that Apple designer Jonathan Ive, a man who reportedly shared a brain with Jobs, will be critical to carrying the company forward. Even if you share a brain with Jobs, Apple has a difficult task ahead. "It's very hard to capture Jobs' knowledge and codify it so an organization can replicate it," said Chaudhuri.

In fact, replicating Jobs might be ruled out as impossible if Apple's former leader was leading the charge. Traditionally, transferring institutional knowledge has been difficult because individuals don't want to cough up their knowhow. "Unless Jobs helped nurture this move himself it's going to be tough for Apple to replicate," he said.

Time will tell. It will be years and many product cycles before we know whether Apple's work to teach its employees to think different paid off.

More:

Violet Blue: The spontaneous San Francisco Apple Store Memorial for Steve Jobs | Perlow: Jobs made me think different | Farber: He thought different | “Stay hungry. Stay foolish.” | CBS News: Wozniak on Jobs | CNET: A Jobs timeline | ZDNet Steve Jobs memories | CNET roundup | Apple statement

Topics: Apple, CXO, IT Employment

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  • Genius can be taught.

    There is a common belief that genius cannot be taught. While it is true, people of fast mind and true vision (genius?) cannot share that ability, what they accomplish can be easily shared and taught to others. For example, Einstein was a genius when it came to math and physics. He was able to come up with a rather simple equation:

    e = mc^2

    The concept of coming up with this very complex and non-trivial. Only a handful of people on the planet at any one time can come up with this equation if they do not already know of its existence (and assuming the pre-requisite pre-knowledge that even Einstein had). The kick is, knowledge of the mass???energy equivalence and how/why it works gives this knowledge to billions of people world wide. Millions actually know how to apply it at basic levels and 10,000's actually understand it at a deep level. So while a person can not be taught to be a genius, it is possible to pass down the knowledge to non-geniuses to allow others to make use of the information.

    So the question is, can what Steve Jobs did to turn around Apple (Yes, there are people that actually think he did nothing and is not responsible for Apple's success) be taught? If you doubt it can, listen to Eric Schmidt's BBC interview he did today. He recognized what Steve brought to Apple. Study those areas and I think much of what Steve brought to how to run a company can be taught.
    Bruizer
    • A unique person.

      Creating an Einstein, it is very doubtful a corporation could accomplish it.

      There are many challenges. One challenge being, most successful people do not truly understand the reasons for their own success. Most successful people make assumptions and spout rules that they incorrectly assume lead them to success but often they are not seeing the true measure of what contributed to their success.

      Another challenge Apple faces, Apples Achilles??? heal is its dependence on cutting edge innovation of products that both push the envelope and are products that the consumer wants (but did not yet know they wanted). Apple is not a Wal-Mart where they are supplying other company???s products and when one leader departs they just find another reasonably good manager to fill the slot.

      Apple needs to be innovative (they depend on it) and without Jobs they have lost that edge.

      Don't believe me, just look at what happened last time Jobs left Apple.

      Apple isn't a company that now simply needs good management. Apple needs a unique visionary that can take existing tech and combine it in unique ways to create cutting edge products that surpass what the brilliant people at other companies are already working on.

      Steve had a self-destructive streak that tended to hold back his brilliant products, or tended to give the competition openings to compete, but the man was a brilliant innovator that could almost see into the future. Replacing him will take many decades of natural selection, just like the first process of his creation. He was unique.

      Chances are Apple will go down the same road they went down last time Steve left Apple. More proof, just look at the new iphone 5 that just . . .did 'not' come out.
      John238
      • Jobs was never CEO prior to 1997

        @John238

        Huge difference. He was always at odds to the upper management on product and development yet alone corporate culture and education. <b>This makes any comparison to his first tenure poor at best.</b>

        The key point is you do not have to create another Einstein, you simply have to understand what Einstein discovered. Genius can be taught. Not creating a new genius but the knowledge, processes and "wisdom" of past geniuses can be handed down to future generations.

        It took 3000 years to come up with the modern wheel. 3000 years to "invent" the wheel Dude, we are talking about a round thing that rolls.

        Your hypothesis (that I do not agree with at all) is that the techniques Apple used to get to its current height are lost forever. If you look at the iPhone 4S, however, Apple is still recognizing the future direction. Tech wienies will look at the simple hardware spec and go ho-hum though that has always been the case with the iPhone:

        Don't believe me, look at the past iOS release:

        <b>iPhone</b>: no 3G. Low res screen. No user installed software. Huge list of other "issues" that made it ho-hum.

        <b>iPhone 3G</b>: Low res screen. Cut/Copy/Paste. Some what slowish. Only added 3G? In a year? Tech people were ho-hum.

        <b>iPhone 3G s</b>: Got lots right but the screen was sub-par for the time. Same basic design and tech people were ho-hum.

        <b>iPad</b>: Tech people were ho-hum. No SD card. No cameras. iFail, just a pig iPad touch.

        <b>iPhone 4</b>: All new design. This phone tech wienies were happy with but still ragged on the small screen.

        <b>iPad 2</b>: Tech people were ho-hum. No SD card. Cameras were not 100MP ubber cameras. iFail 2, just a pig iPad touch. Just thinner and lighter and faster? Is that it? Are you kidding me?

        <b>iPhone 4 s</b>: All new internals same externals. Tech people, that don't understand tech, say ho-hum and fail to see that Apple is skating to where the puck is going. Google got started quickly in their cloud offerings but they now look antiquated and remedial next to iCloud and Siri.

        Given Apple works to a 10 year plan, I suspect the next 10 years will be very strong.
        Bruizer
  • Tea, Earl Grey, Shaken not stirred

    I don't see why it's necessary that the public face of the company (the "chief salesman") also be the person who foresees how some new technology can impact the market. Jobs played both roles, but Apple could do just as well if those roles had to be split.

    To date, Apple's breakthrough products have been done by taking an existing high-volume consumer electronics market ('Walkmen', cell phones) and applying computer technology to them without turning the devices themselves into "computers."

    There still exist many opportunities to do this: televisions, microwaves and other kitchen appliances, automobile aftermarket stuff to name just a few. The trick is to keep beating the complexity out of it until virtually anyone can walk up and use it without RTFM. That could be the hardest skill to teach.
    Robert Hahn
    • I think you nailed the &quot;TV Problem&quot;.

      @Robert Hahn

      The TV is already so dead simple. Efforts to simplify it tend to just complicate it.
      Bruizer
  • I don't think some people get it.

    It is a pure genius idea Apple has there. And I can tell you why. I seriously doubt that their primary goal is to create "a creative mind" so to speak. The fact of the matter is that many can make a fantastic argument that a mind either has the 'capacity' for Jobs style creativity or it does not. You really cannot create that kind of creativity in a mind where there was no real ability there before. The question isn't, how to create a creative mind out of one that would otherwise never be; the question is how do you influence a potentially creative mind, such that if it is one in whatever degree, that its creativity will place the utmost importance in being creative in ways that will be beneficial to the interests of your company. Influence enough potentially very creative people in such a way and you would not only create employees who are smart and thinking about creating things, always bearing in mind the companies most important philosophies and policies, but you are likely to greatly increase the chances of one of these smart people trained in such a way coming up with a genius creation that has the most important earmarks of the companies philosophies about their products.<br><br>How many various sorts of complainers even around here whine about any number of companies, about how they seem to have lost their vision, lost their way, forgotten what made them great, forgotten who their customers are?<br><br>It seems like sooner or later every company gets a dose of this kind of language thrown at them at some time or other. There are always complainers. The real problem comes up from time to time though when there is a company that has largely built there ability to sell products on a few core ideas. And its not unusual that those few baseline ideals the companies products live by may be going a long way to completely over rule any shortcomings the companies products otherwise have, certainly no product is perfection. <br><br>If the company does lose their vision of whats made them great, they had ALWAYS, no matter who they are, strike it very lucky, or fabulous genius, to simply drop all your original core ideals that made you great and just like that switch out to a new set of ideas somehow every bit as genius as the originals. Not likely, but you never know.<br><br>Apple is taking out a nice insurance policy here by littering their management with lots of people who know and understand the thinking, and the ideals and resulting creations that came out of that. Many if not most will not have real creative genius, but some, or even one may. And they will all be thinking at least in the same kind of terms as Jobs did, and if one is capable of some genius ideas its likely they will be doing it with the principles of Steve Jobs in mind.
    Cayble
  • &quot;Can&quot; and &quot;will&quot; are two different questions

    In theory, of course they can. In reality, it will depend on Apple's successes and failures. More on their failures, really. How long will the BoD accept a streak of failures from someone not named Steve Jobs? Jobs certainly had his share of failures, but he had the great successes as well and always came back with another great success, so the company did not sweat every failure he had. <br><br>Will Tim Cook be given the same benefit of the doubt Jobs got? You'd like to think so, because there doesn't seem to be one person within the Apple inner circle who has any doubts in him, at least not publicly. But if there are failures early, or even successes that did not quite meet expectations, human nature sets in and doubt will enter the BoD's minds. And if that happens, who knows how they will react? Will they hire another John Sculley, someone who will right the ship in the short term at the expense of the values that got them where they are now? It's easy to say they won't now, but they aren't under pressure from their stockholders now either.
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