The true origins of the personal computer

The true origins of the personal computer

Summary: When you think of the history of personal computing, three figures stand out--Gordon Moore, Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. They represent the major platforms of personal computing today, but their ascendancy was preceded by a cultural, social and political movement that is closer to the open source movement than Itanium, Windows or Macintosh.

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TOPICS: Hardware
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markoff1.jpgWhen you think of the history of personal computing, three figures stand out--Gordon Moore, Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. They represent the major platforms of personal computing today, but their ascendancy was preceded by a cultural, social and political movement that is closer to the open source movement than Itanium, Windows or Macintosh. In his new book, "What the Dormouse Said: How 60's Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry" (Viking),  John Markoff (long time NYT reporter) chronicles how the counterculture movement of the 1960s and early 1970's drove the emergence of personal computing. 

In the San Francisco Bay area, in the midst of Vietnam War protests, acid trips, folk dancing, minicomputers, est, Spacewar, the Free Speech Movement and youthful idealism, a diverse group of individuals--both buttoned-up scientists and hippie nerds--saw the potential to scale from world of punch cards, time-sharing and minicomputers to powerful computers designed for individuals. Markoff chronicles the interactions of characters--such as Doug Englebart, Myron Stolaroff, Larry Tesler, Alan Kay, John McCarthy, Stewart Brand, John Draper, Bill Duvall, Larry Roberts, Dan Ingalls, Bill English, Fred Moore, Bob Taylor and Jim Warren, to name a few of the principle players--who pioneered the personal computing movement. Along the way Ken Kesey, Joan Baez, Werner Erhard, David Harris, The Grateful Dead and other countercultural figures intersect with the computer crowd.

It's a fascinating look at the Silicon Valley culture and the personal computer industry in its youth. Thirty years later, the concepts formulated at the Stanford AI Lab, Englebart's Augment Lab and at Xerox PARC are still works in progress. The mouse, windows, icons and cut and paste are legacies of that past. We are closer to the goal of a connected computer (PDA, cell phone) for everyone on the planet, as well as "free" software. Along the way, a few got rich and a critical IT industry evolved.  

In many ways, open source and the Internet are a continuation of what started in the 1960's as "power to the people." Once again, those with a passion for digital technology who are not part of the "establishment" are formulating new concepts and use models, forcing a rethinking of music, media, film and other industries. We won't know how it turns out for a while, but this transformation is already the subject of many books and blogs. Thirty years from now, or a bit sooner, someone will write a book (or craft an interactive, multimedia experience) that chronicles the wild and contentious period of personalized computing between 1995 and 2010, against a backdrop of globalization, wars, politics, greed, bubble bursting and invention. It will be more of a tale of heroes and villains than Markoff's book, which is mostly about heroes who toiled in relative anonymity. In this current era, we have a more complex relationship with technology. It both empowers individuals and eliminates privacy. It impacts every part of our lives, and is woven into the cultural fabric, especially among the youth. Many stories are yet to written about how the cultural influences, including technology, of this decade will shape the future.

Topic: Hardware

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    MepisLINUXuser
  • That was the hobbyists!

    Yes -- there was a time when things were forming where groups were trying to have fun and learn and share, but those were the hobbyists -- they did not have good direction (it is somewhat different today) and they did not have the infrastructure needed to survive relative to the big Kahuna of the day. Some of us fought this way of doing things and tried to shape the future based upon good economic analysis and planning, and we did survive (some what), but we also created a real revolution in how things were done. See http://www.dvandusen.com/visicalc_story/PPS_Methodology/page_02.htm if you want to see what the business planning was really like. It is primitive by today's standard, but it did involve Gates, Visicorp, Jobs and many others of the day. This planning what was really behind the development of the spreadsheet prior to and up to Visicalc.
    dvandusen
  • Privacy Advocate

    Sorry, but - plain wrong.

    The relationship we have today, with Information & Communications Technology (ICT), does not automatically reduce privacy.

    Technology = Tools

    I have a rifle. If I use it properly, I have some fun and my friends and I get to eat some good meat. If I misuse it, someone may die...

    If the ICT services provided to me are properly managed then my on-line safety, and my privacy, are ensured. If they are badly managed - or managed by companies who do not have my best interests at heart - I will lose my privacy, perhaps my identity, and possibly even a big chunk of my life...

    Some firms had better start warming up to this idea - or they will lose custom to those companies that remember: The Customer is King!
    Stephen Wheeler
  • the true origins of the

    you left an acronym out of your title. Now, seeing that this acronym is not anywhere in your article either only leads me to suspect. =TRUE or FALSE= laud is there anyone out there?
    stemcellphone
  • Just thought this deserved a mention

    What about Gary Kildall, the creator of CP/M, and the founder of Digital Research? I haven't read the book, but the blog entry describing it didn't even mention him. Granted CP/M wasn't open source, but CP/M was a significant development in the personal computer. It was the first PC operating system that we'd recognize as such today, and was probably the first legitimator for the use of PCs for business purposes. Though I have a soft spot for the other early platforms as they were the first ones I used, but looking at them objectively, they were just hodge-podges of different technologies. If you look at an Apple II today, you can see that the way you operated it was either from the machine monitor, or you used Applesoft BASIC as the command line interpreter, with a very simple, basic OS, and disk drive driver software underneath.
    Mark Miller