The EPA has proposed regulating major air polluters under the Clean Air Act, those emitting 25,000 tons or more of carbon per year. That would add two zeros to the amount of pollution that's to be regulated according to the wording of the Clean Air Act. Can they do this without Congressional action?
The EPA's heated up the Senate arguments over carbon emissions by publishing the proposed regs in the Federal Register just as the Senate committee hearings are underway. The EPA had earlier announced its intention of regulating large industries, the publication is one of the necessary steps before any action actually is enacted. Perhaps this is a way to goad the Senators into taking steps.
EPA says 14,000 American polluters would need to get EPA permits. That's where the money comes in. Small business, farms, restaurants and most small businesses would be exempt from the regulations.