From a September 10 blog post on the OneDrive blog:
"We’re excited to announce that you can now upload files up to 10 GB using the desktop apps for Windows and Mac, all of the mobile apps, and the OneDrive website! We recognized that people not only have more files than they did before, but they have bigger files as well. This is a top feature request we’ve received and we’re excited to deliver it!"
Microsoft execs wouldn't say exactly when OneDrive for Business users will get the new 10 GB limit. My guess is their reticence is due to the fact that OneDrive for Business is reliant on SharePoint Online/Office 365, and there is a test version of the next version of SharePoint coming soon. When I asked if that was the case, a spokesperson said the company had nothing more to share.