Spending on e-government in Western Europe is likely to reach USD5.8 bil in 2007, up from USD2.9 bil in 2002, according to research house IDC. In a study of 15 countries in Western Europe, titled "European eGovernment Services, Country Benchmarking and Market Forecast, 2002-2007," IDC found that in 2002, 16% of all spending on IT services in the public sector went toward e-government. "E-government has definitely become a key component of government modernisation strategies," said Marianne Kolding, director of IDC's European Services research. However, Kolding cautioned that few countries were likely to achieve the eEurope Action Plan objective of having all services on-line by 2005. Among IDC's other findings was that of the 15 countries examined, France is planning to invest the most in e-government services over the five-year period. The study also said that Ireland, Spain, Italy and Portugal are relatively sophisticated in the services they provide to the public and businesses, but challenges remain in making on-line services accessible to the general public.