Leichtman Research Group found that at the beginning of 2005 broadband penetration of households in the US stood at close to 29% nationwide. Significant state-by-state disparities in broadband penetration remain, however. While these disparities are largely related to variations in household income across the states, these differences are strikingly similar to the state-by-state splits in the 2004 presidential election. 8 states, which have broadband penetration over 35%, all voted for John Kerry in 2004. 11 states, which had broadband penetration at or below 20%, all voted for George Bush in 2004. Cumulative broadband penetration in states that voted for Kerry was 33%, compared to 25% in states that voted for Bush.