A major part of the problem lies with the operating system running on these devices, which by its nature is reconfigurable and open for internal and external communications.
Per Buer, CEO and co-founder of Norwegian software company IncludeOS, thinks the growing use of Linux as an embedded operating system is giving it a role for which it is far from perfect.
"Linux has impressive hardware and software support. It supports just about any protocol and any peripheral. It is all dynamic so anything at any time can connect to a Linux system," he wrote recently.
"The result is a massive amount of code and following this a considerable number of potential bugs that could lead to compromise."
He thinks his company's OS offers a better solution. It has created an open-source OS that links into the application at compile time, resulting in one software image where the OS functionality is inside the application and running directly on top of the hardware.
IncludeOS links only the OS functionality that the application needs into the binary software image, thus reducing both its size and possible attack surfaces. This approach is normally termed a 'library OS'.
IncludeOS runs in a single address space, so there are neither interprocess communications nor concepts like user space and kernel space.
SEE: 20 quick tips to make Linux networking easier (free PDF)
This quality makes it a unikernel OS, and together these concepts give the architecture some very different characteristics compared with traditional operating systems.
"Unikernel OSes are super-slim, a thousandth in size, compared with a typical Linux installation. Performance increases dramatically, because the application doesn't need to talk to the OS to get hardware resources like memory or network -- it knows how to do it itself," Buer tells ZDNet.
"A unikernel also starts extremely quickly. Typically, Unix-based OSes take 10 to 20 seconds to start up. We're booting in five milliseconds."
But the most important feature is security. As Linux, and most other OSes are designed to be general-purpose operating systems with long lifespans on different hardware platforms, they are reconfigurable. This quality can make them vulnerable to malicious misuse by an attacker.
"The ability for the operating system to reconfigure itself is something we never implemented. We may have had plans for that a couple of years ago, but today we see that as our greatest feature," Buer says.
IncludeOS was invented by CTO Alfred Bratterud as part of his studies of hypervisors at OsloMet University. As a result, IncludeOS was first implemented for running in virtual machines on top of hypervisors. Later, it was coded to run on bare metal x86 processors.
Meanwhile, IncludeOS' user community started to request a version for Arm-based computers. These processors are in widespread use for IoT devices, and earlier this year IncludeOS applied for EU funds for the project to port the code. As a result, it was granted €1.25m ($1.41m) in funding, and the work starts in January.
Buer says he expects the code to boot on Arm by next summer, and that the project will for the main part be completed in two years' time.
"So hopefully, in five years' time you'll never be more than 20 meters away from a piece of hardware that's running our software," Buer says.
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