French coding skills development company CodinGame surveyed 20,000 developers about their favourite languages and other details of their careers.
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"Special mention for Python, in top position for the third year in a row. The language has truly captured developers' hearts," said the report.
"These two programming languages seem to divide developers," the report noted. VB.NET and C rounded out the five most-dreaded languages.
The survey also found that while 40% learned to code at university, 34% said they were self-taught and 15% said they learned at school, while 5% said they learned at a bootcamp or other short-term training course. Only two percent said they learned to code via an online training course.
Developers said they were most interested in learning about machine learning and AI this year, followed by game development and web development.
Developers working in the UK rated themselves as the happiest, followed by Canada and the US; devs working in Russia and Poland rated themselves as the least happy in the top ten.
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"Unsurprisingly, the top three countries offer working conditions that are often very favourable for developers, especially in terms of salary range," said CodinGame co-founder Aude Barral. "France, standing at the 6th position, is a bit lagging behind. It could be explained by the fact that some countries have been moderately responsive to the extreme tension of the tech recruitment market, and do not yet consider developers as 'rock stars', unlike in the US or in the UK.
"Generally speaking, it is crucial for countries to consider that developers are essential to the economic development and innovation of their companies," she said.