A study, covering 66,465 US households from 1991 to 1996 showed that the average household's portfolio underperformed the market by 1.44% a year, on average. Corporate insiders (defined as senior executives) usually outperform by about 5%. US senators' personal stock portfolios outperformed the market by an average of 12% a year in the five years to 1998. First-time Senators did especially well, with their stocks outperforming by 20% a year on average.
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