The new strain of malware known as VPNFilter is targeting more makes and models of devices and boasting additional capabilities, including the ability to deliver exploits to endpoints and override reboots, Cisco Talos has reported.
Originally, Talos found VPNFilter had infected at least 500,000 networking devices, mainly consumer-grade internet routers, across 54 countries.
As of May 24, the known devices affected by the malware were Linksys, MikroTik, Netgear, and TP-Link networking equipment in the small and home office space, as well at QNAP network-attached storage (NAS) devices.
In a new blog post, Talos updated the list of affected devices to include those from Asus, D-Link, Huawei, Ubiquiti, Upvel, and ZTE.
New devices were also discovered from Linksys, MikroTik, Netgear, and TP-Link -- but the Cisco-owned company said no Cisco network devices are affected.
In addition to adding new devices to the list, Talos said it discovered a new stage 3 module -- named "ssler" -- that injects malicious content into web traffic as it passes through a network device, which allows the actor to deliver exploits to endpoints via a man-in-the-middle capability.
"With this new finding, we can confirm that the threat goes beyond what the actor could do on the network device itself, and extends the threat into the networks that a compromised network device supports," the blog explains.
Despite the FBI urging small businesses and households to immediately reboot routers following initial reports from Talos, it won't prevent the threat; even after a reboot, ssler renders the malware capable of maintaining a persistent presence on an infected device.
Any outgoing web requests on port 80 are then intercepted by ssler and can be inspected and manipulated before being sent to the legitimate HTTP service, the researchers explained.
Another stage 3 module -- device destruction module (dstr) -- which provides any stage 2 module that lacks the kill command the capability to disable the device, has also been found by Talos.
It triggers a kill command for routers after self-destruction and then deletes the rest of the related files, removing traces of the VPNFiler malware from the device and then rendering the device unusable.
According to Talos, its new discoveries have shown the threat from VPNFilter continues to grow.
"In addition to the broader threat surface found with additional targeted devices and vendors, the discovery of the malware's capability to support the exploitation of endpoint devices expands the scope of this threat beyond the devices themselves, and into the networks those devices support," the researchers wrote.
"If successful, the actor would be able to deploy any desired additional capability into the environment to support their goals, including rootkits, exfiltration capability, and destructive malware."
Known infected devices include:
- Asus: RT-AC66U, RT-N10, RT-N10E, RT-N10U, RT-N56U, and RT-N66U.
- D-Link: DES-1210-08P, DIR-300, DIR-300A, DSR-250N, DSR-500N, DSR-1000, and DSR-1000N.
- Huawei: HG8245.
- Linksys: E1200, E2500, E3000 E3200, E4200, RV082, and WRVS4400N.
- Mikrotik: CCR1009, CCR1016, CCR1036, CCR1072, CRS109, CRS112, CRS125, RB411, RB450, RB750, RB911, RB921, RB941, RB951, RB952, RB960, RB962, RB1100, RB1200, RB2011, RB3011, RB Groove, RB Omnitik, and STX5.
- Netgear: DG834, DGN1000, DGN2200, DGN3500, FVS318N, MBRN3000, R6400, R7000, R8000, WNR1000, WNR2000, WNR2200, WNR4000, WNDR3700, WNDR4000, WNDR4300, WNDR4300-TN, and UTM50.
- QNAP: TS251, TS439 Pro, and other QNAP NAS devices running QTS software.
- TP-Link: R600VPN, TL-WR741ND, and TL-WR841N.
- Ubiquiti: NSM2 and PBE M5.
- ZTE: ZXHN H108N.
Malware targeting Upvel has also been found; however, no devices have been isolated by the vendor.
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