The BSA’s biggest strength is perhaps its membership, and two of the companies that were among the original founders remain powerful members: Microsoft and Autodesk.
“Just about every other company has undergone some kind of a change in corporate identity, so that we now have, at least on the face of it, a different roster of members,” Kruger said.
The BSA’s current membership boasts the biggest companies in the computer industry. In addition to Microsoft, it includes Adobe, Apple, and IBM, companies whose presence in international markets demands some kind of protections for their properties. Kruger said that as a result of the BSA’s efforts, most countries in the international marketplace now have laws in place designed to protect the intellectual property rights of software and e-commerce developers.
The strength of its membership has helped the BSA grow into a powerful organization that is increasingly flexing its muscles to fight software piracy and maintain licensing compliance among business users. Kruger said that the BSA is best known today for its efforts to enforce software licensing laws.
“We are viewed by many as the software police, the organization that will, in fact, investigate and pursue instances of infringement that come to its attention.”
Perhaps the most potent action the BSA takes is the auditing of companies under investigation for possible software license infringements. When the BSA has obtained adequate evidence to pursue a case, it will obtain court orders to conduct audits of the software installed on company computers. Kruger emphasized that this occurs only in cases where the BSA has gathered enough evidence to show that a company has violated software license agreements.
“We try very hard here to make sure that we’re only proceeding on the basis of reliable information.”
Information on possible violations typically arrives via the BSA’s piracy hotline or its Web site. In most cases, Kruger said, the callers are either current or former employees of the companies they are reporting. He acknowledged that many are former employees who feel they’ve been wronged by the companies in some way.
“We’ve found that there are plenty of employees with an axe to grind who actually have very good, credible, detailed information. The challenge for the BSA, of course, is to separate out the disgruntled employees with good information from the disgruntled employees with bad information.”
Only when the BSA has established that the information is credible does it begin to take action against the targeted company. After the preliminary investigation, which includes obtaining a detailed statement from the caller and checking registration records with the software company whose licenses are being violated, the BSA contacts the company to give it the opportunity to cooperate in the investigation. At this point, however, the BSA has already built a solid case of license infringement against the company and will likely end up levying fines against it.
“If a company is being contacted by the BSA either directly or through our lawyers, it’s usually too late for the company to simply get into compliance; it's too late to do what they should’ve done in the first place.”
The consequences of noncompliance
What can happen if you fail to comply with the licensing agreements for the software you use? Consider the case of Washington, DC-based Adrenaline Group Inc., a software development and Web consulting company. In May 2001, the company agreed to pay $103,000 to the BSA to settle a claim that it was using unlicensed commercial software. A Washington Post article reported that Adrenaline Group was among hundreds of companies that were tipped off to the BSA via its piracy hotline.
After being contacted by the BSA, Adrenaline Group conducted an internal audit and found it was using more copies of particular programs than it had licenses for. Adrenaline said that the software licensing issue was unintentional and arose as a consequence of the company’s rapid growth. According to Kruger, this is the case for many of the companies the BSA has investigated. Companies that run into problems aren't necessarily bad—they just haven't paid enough attention to their software licensing.
When the BSA has established solid evidence of violations and contacted the
company, the company must take steps to get into compliance. It will also have
to pay fines for the violations.
Kruger said that the violating company must take these actions to resolve the case: