The ban comes after Samsung halted production of the Galaxy Note 7 and issued a worldwide recall for the mobile device on Tuesday.
"We recognize that banning these phones from airlines will inconvenience some passengers, but the safety of all those aboard an aircraft must take priority," said Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx. "We are taking this additional step because even one fire incident inflight poses a high risk of severe personal injury and puts many lives at risk."
Fliers who evade the ban will be subject to criminal punishment.
"Samsung, together with carriers, is working to communicate the U.S. Department of Transportation's new order to ban all Galaxy Note 7 devices in carry-on and checked baggage on flights. We have encouraged airlines to issue similar communications directly to their passengers," Samsung said in a statement.
The battery in the Galaxy Note 7 is believed to have exploded in over 100 incidents, with one being on a Southwest Airlines flight before departing from Louisville, KY.