But a new survey from Czech IDE maker JetBrains has found that Java, historically the most popular programming language, is still the top main language used by developers.
"Java is the most popular primary programming language," declares JetBrains in its State of Developer Ecosystem 2020 report.
SEE: Programming languages and developer career resources (TechRepublic on Flipboard)
JetBrains makes the popular IntelliJ IDEA Java IDE, which is also the foundation for Google's Android Studio, as well as Kotlin, a programming language that Google officially supports for Android development, and the widely used PyCharm IDE.
JetBrains analyst Sichkarenko Anastassiya explained the apparent discrepancy by saying each languages' position – first, second or third – was assigned a weighting to produce an overall popularity ranking.
JetBrains also notes that Python, whose popularity has surged due to the growth of machine learning, has overtaken Java in terms of languages used in the past year. Python is also the 'most-studied' language, with almost a third of respondents starting or continuing Python education last year.
The top three languages developers plan to adopt include Google's system programming language Go, JetBrains' Kotlin, which Google supports for Android development, and Python.
Rust – a system programming language created at Mozilla that Microsoft is embracing for code written in C and C++ – is fourth on the list of planned languages, followed by TypeScript, Apple's Swift, and Google's Dart.
Among desktop application developers, Windows is the top target (86%), followed by Linux (68%), and macOS (38%).
JetBrains says two-thirds of developers use native tools to develop apps for Android and iOS, while half of all developers use cross-platform frameworks like Facebook's React Native, Microsoft's Xamarin, and Google's UI framework Flutter.
The order of mobile cross-platform frameworks hasn't changed much from last year's survey. React Native remains the most popular cross-platform framework (42%), followed by Flutter (39%), with Ionic and Cordova tying in third place (18% each).
JetBrains notes that shares of shares of Cordova, Ionic, and Xamarin have declined slightly over the past year.